Similarly, in another study, abalone (H. discus hannai) was fed with a mixed seaweed diet containing L. digitata, P. palmata, and U. lactuca and compared with various formulated diets consisting of fish oil, a mix of seaweed and fish oil, basal diet, and a basal diet formulation. Canopy- and habitat-forming brown algae are often the most productive in many coasts around the world. Photo by R.J. Anderson. Conversely, other generalists such as Patella ferruginea show a preference for heterogeneous and irregular substrates (Rivera-Ingraham et al., 2011a). Juvenile abalone start eating seaweed at about 10 mm shell length and consume 10–30% of their body weight in seaweed per day. C. Vonthron-Sénécheau, in Seaweed in Health and Disease Prevention, 2016. In addition, three DHZ conjugates were present in nine of these species (Yokoya et al., 2010; further discussed in Section 5.3.3). In Kilmore Quay, Ireland, an S. muticum bed was estimated to have an average biomass of 487 tons (wet weight) (Kraan, 2008). Cytokinin receptors are histidine kinases with signal transduction involving two types of proteins – histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPt) and type-B response regulators (RR; Steklov, Lomin, Osolodkin, & Romanov, 2013). Cytokinins are present in many diverse seaweeds. The genus Ecklonia (Lessoniaceae, Phaeophyceae), commonly called kelp (brown algae), is abundant on the coasts of Japan and Korea. Eklo’s nutrients are readily available and … There was also a gradient of cytokinin-like activity with the basal portion of the young blades having the highest activity which co-chromatographed with free bases and ribosides and the tip having the lowest activity. Cymbula oculus, for example, colonises relatively flat surfaces, making it easier for individuals to traverse significant rock surfaces (Branch, 1976). In its structure, alginic acid contains three kinds of polymer segments, viz., d-mannuronic acid units, l-guluronic acid units, and alternating d-mannuronic acid and l-guluronic acid residues (Black, 1950; Hoppe and Schmid, 1962). It is widely accepted that the selection of seaweed for food is varied according to the abalone species; however, most abalone will eat other less favored seaweed species if no choice is available (Cornwall et al., 2009). Various diets containing fresh and dried kelp (Ecklonia maxima) blades, stripes, a commercial feed Abfeed®-S34, a mixture of kelp and commercial feed, and a blend of different seaweeds (Gracilaria gracilis, U. lactuca, and kelp) were tested in this study (Naidoo et al., 2006). In the microalga C. vulgaris, exogenous application of BA, kinetin and Z had a positive effect, increasing cell number, chlorophyll and carotenoid content as well as being involved in carbon metabolism (Piotrowska & Czerpak, 2009). Over 6000 tonnes of kelps are harvested annually on the South African west coast for abalone feed, and some kelp beds are now reaching sustainable limits of exploitation (Figure 8). There are about 30 different genera, Ecklonia Maxima or Sea Bamboo being found only in the South African West Coast and each one being unique in his chemical structure. When applied as a foliar spray, […] Two other kelp species belonging to the genus Ecklonia (i.e., E. cava and E. stolonifera) are also being subjected to culture development in Korea. Abalone (Haliotis midae) aquaculture in South Africa is an example in which IMTA is practiced at a large scale. Another dramatic case relates to Ascophyllum, production of which decreased from 13 500 t (1999) to 2000 t (2009), mainly because its alginate produces low strength gel (low G blocks) whilst the market is demanding high G alginate (Bixler and Porse, 2011). However, in addition to the benefits they bring to the skin, when ingested, algae are effective in lowering cholesterol and help prevent hypertension. The predominant cytokinins were cZ forms (mainly cZRMP) and iP forms (mainly isopentenylsdenosine-5′-monophosphate (iPRMP) and iP) with lower concentrations of cytokinin O-glucosides and no N-glucosides. It is present in seaweed as a mixed salt of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (Draget, 2009). Hydrolyzed fish stabilized with phosphoric acid, Kelp (Ecklonia maxima), Molasses and Langbeinite. Cultured Sargassum naozhouense (Tseng and Lu) in China had a yield of 1.75 kg wet wt/m culture rope (recalculated) (Xie et al., 2013), while Sargassum fulvellum (Turner) C. Agardh cultured in Korea has a mean biomass of 3.0 kg wet wt/ m culture rope (Hwang et al., 2006). Kelpak application improves firmness, shelf life and colour. Porphyra (Nori) is used in China as an antiascorbic (Chen, 1973) in link to its content in vitamin C. Today in Asia, Ecklonia kurome still has the reputation to facilitate the restoring of lying-in women (Park and Peterson, 1991; Tseng and Chang, 1984). For example, tZ was present in K. alvarezii, G. edulis and S. tenerrimum (Prasad et al., 2010); iPR, tZ and tZR were identified in L. japonica (Duan et al., 1995); iPR was detected in C. globularis (Zhang, Yamane, Takahashi, Chapman, & Phinney, 1989) and Porphyra perforata while iPA and cZR were present in Sargassum muticum (Zhang, Chapman, Phinney, & Spray, 1991). Of the seaweeds, Ecklonia maxima has the highest concentration of plant growth stimuli which makes this plant so beneficial. The South African coast, are easily taken up by land plants sprays, reducing leaf burn these. Ammonium salts are manufactured using tried and tested methods, to the authors’ knowledge, no data are in! Evolved from both the ‘trial and error’ approach and small-scale scientific experiments there is also true for integrated seaweed–abalone.. 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